The human body is always changing and constantly moving, finally, evolving. Body movement and stress received, will result in some physical changes depend to some extent on the consistency and the load of stimuli in the different body parts.
In recent years, bodybuilding has been booming and more and more athletes practicing the sport. The increase has also been marked in women, in which quality of competing there, also showing great discipline when boarding the platform.
This sport is usually based on anaerobic and consistent in training exercises. It is an activity usually takes place in gyms where he trains sometimes up to twice a day.
Bodybuilding is a physical activity aimed at maximum development of muscle hypertrophy (visible musculature) of human beings. From this point of view, it shares with other sports certain methods and skills, although its purpose is markedly different.
To achieve this hypertrophy, skeletal muscle mass has to be regulated by the balance of protein synthesis and degradation, increased by exercise induced physical activity, causing increased activation of protein synthesis resulting in muscle hypertrophy (Ito et al., 2013).
Muscle relaxation is vital for the process of muscle hypertrophy process. The muscle grows when we allow enough rest to recover from stress and strain suffered in training. Several studies suggest at least 72 hours of rest every muscle, along with a daily sleep between 6 to 8 hours.
Not only the size or muscle hypertrophy is important to succeed in this sport, also works with other components such as muscle definition, muscle symmetry and muscle details.
Another important component in bodybuilding and most demanding of all is food. It is categorized into nutrition and supplementation. Caloric intake; either hipercalórico or low-calorie (depending on the phase of periodization), are based largely on consumption of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
This together with training (caloric expenditure), the athlete directly influence what foods have to consume, how much and in what time or time of day can consume. It also stresses that food should not be consumed.
Many countries do not classify bodybuilding as a sport. However, this discipline has all the necessary to be identified as a sport components, since it has: skills, awards, categories, national associations and international federations such as the Personal trainer DC “International Federation of BodyBuilding and Fitness (IFBB)”.
This sport is distinguished from many sports such as weightlifting, powerlifting, etc. This is because the fisicoculturismo is based on the physical and aesthetic also in the body. Unlike other sports, which seek to improve physical performance as: weight, load, distance, altitude, time, etc.
Bodybuilders have several features and qualities that are very strict to climb the dais. Including: discipline, dedication, effort, consistency, concentration, courage, pride, purpose, etc .; but above all, love for this demanding sport.
Origin and art Fisicoculturismo
Since ancient times, the human body has always been a topic of beauty, power, being the strongest, to go further, to go further, etc. All this to be printed on a drawing, figures, paintings and even sculptures. These artists sought perfection and details in his works, as this meant its authentic stamp.
The body of many men came to be immortalized in these works. Many of them were gladiators and even some considered them as gods by their spectacular bodies and being winners of multiple wars.
Body building has its first manifestations in figures of Greek vases; apparently, hands and weights were used (as a ballast) to perform jumps or exercises to increase strength and length of the jump.
According to Lopez et al. (2010), dates back to the time of ancient Greece and Rome where athletes trained with weight and strength, then compete in the Olympics or fight as gladiators in the arena of the great Roman coliseum.
At the time, bodybuilding was behaviors directed primarily to the development of strength or size with the goal of survival as clear purpose, or as religious rites in concrete festivities.
Like a sculpture, the bodybuilder should be: prepared, molded, sculpted, polished, refined, detailed, etc. To a large extent, it should be a different and unique work to have an authenticity.
Although the human body carries the same limb, muscle, joints, etc .; the difference is the sculptor behind the molded body, which has done so with its unique details, marking his “signature” in the athlete’s body.
Bodybuilding looking beyond a physical good; seeks perfection. Like the artist in his proper work; coaches and competitors do working with: muscle size (hypertrophy), muscle definition, symmetry of muscles, muscle details, among other things.
These athletes personify the physical balance by artists and philosophers of the time, who claimed that physical perfection was the most godlike.
The first is the sense of bodybuilder transformation, physical improvement, a body mass while reports will become sculpted, carved, modeling in an act of pursuing beauty (Ferrús Anton, 2005).
In the process of bodybuilding and modern competition, several famous people who were important figures for the evolution of the sport as we know it today.
First, include Eugen Sandow (1867-1925), who was the first to exhibit in showing his muscles.
Sandow is known as the father of modern bodybuilding . He was also one of the first
commercialize mechanical equipment to perform exercises such as weights and pulleys
Bodybuilding had a great impact and popularity in the early (1950 and 1960), since more sophisticated equipment and devices begin to appear. There was also a lot of publicity comic and superhero comics where highlighted the impressive body of these heroes. Also they appear for the first time in magazines and bodybuilding exercises.
The decades (1940-1970), is known as the Golden Age ( “The Golden Age”). It is so called because it was the moment where the fisicoculturismo peaked development and popularity. Further research is also developed in areas of nutrition, supplementation and training.
Vince Gironda, Frank Zane, Lou Ferrigno, Sergio Oliva and for many, the best bodybuilder of all time in Arnold Schwarzenegger: At this time several known figures as they arise.
Arnold Schwarzenegger. Seven times Mr. Olympia champion (1970-7975 and 1980)
For the recognition and impact of these and other bodybuilding athletes after the 70s, they begin to be hired as actors in films. Movies like ” The Incredible Hulk” (1978), “Conan the Barbarian” (1982), “The Terminator” (1984) and “Predator” (1987), were successful and were carried out by bodybuilders.
However despite the popularity of the sport and bodybuilding it suffers a decline in the decades of 1980 and 1990.
However, it was not until early 2000 that the fisicoculturismo reprises an increase in participation and popularity of a new group of elite bodybuilders, excelling Ronnie Coleman.
Ronnie “The King” Coleman. Eight times consecutive Mr. Olympia champion (1998-2005)
Modern Bodybuilding Competition
The powers of bodybuilding men and women practice it, so much so that one of the categories is mixed. Thus, bodybuilding is one of the few sports where participation of both genders competing together in the same category.
The bodybuilding competitions are articulated on the composition of poses, body in his statism should captivate a look, body achieves a moment of perfection, as a living statue, as a body worthy of being immortalized in a portrait. Metaphor of a embalmed body you want while parading and death. Body that exists because other looks. (Ferrús Anton, 2005).
This sport is divided into two tests: compulsory poses and free poses.
In testing mandatory or compulsory poses are important general shape and form of the different muscle groups. Judges should favor competitors with harmonious physical and classic, also looking good posture, athletic disposition and correct (good constitution, broad shoulders, high chest, physiological spinal curves, limbs and trunk in good proportion, straight legs, etc. harmonic structure ).
In addition, good skin tone without spots, acne or tattoos, which are considered by the judges as skin defects, well-groomed hair, shapely feet and fingers, etc.
The athlete has to prove its muscles and convince the public and the judges that is the best of all body with a bloated body structure, symmetrical, detailed, etc.
The other test in bodybuilding poses are free. Judges can study in this test, muscular deployment within an artistic, well-choreographed with music at the discretion of the athlete or coach routine. The duration of this test is approximately one minute.
This routine should be a series of beautiful movements and the same competitors have to show all aspects of their physical: front, side and back. Each athlete is free to perform the poses and in the order they want them. These poses are performed in an authentic and original form, thus using their artistic to show in this way the seal body with a unique style and skills.
The Cuban Sergio Oliva posing in the free category
Coaches of other sports, should emphasize some of the methods that are carried out in bodybuilding, mostly during the early stages of periodization.
First, bodybuilding training, provides an excellent method of muscle hypertrophy. This training method is recommended for sports that require the recruitment of many muscle fibers to improve the strength, power and muscular endurance.
However, in water sports it is not advisable to perform many practice sessions with targets muscle hypertrophy, because the weight of muscles affect to some extent the aquatic athlete in competitions requiring physical execution in the shortest time possible (eg. 100 free meters).
Second, bodybuilding provides tools for good muscle symmetry. This helps muscles are tightly balanced, thus preventing muscle injuries by muscle imbalances.
Thus, other sports can be found in bodybuilding alternatives for their athletes are the most possible fit for competition through muscle symmetry, since sports require all your muscles are working in unison and harmony.
Third, bodybuilding is one of the few sports that are governed by a strict regimen of diet, nutrition and supplementation. This aspect of food is of vital importance, since a lapse in what they consume or ingest, can positively or negatively affect the body composition of the athlete and the result of athletic performance being performed.
Thus bodybuilding provides guidance on how to feed the athlete in the different phases of periodization. Although this varies in each sport, as the food is not as strict as in bodybuilding, we nevertheless bodybuilding brings a discipline on the amount and when the athlete should or should not eat certain foods.
The goal of the bodybuilder is up to the stage in the best possible condition. The bodybuilder, not necessarily going with a mindset to get the first place in its category rather have a mindset to look better every time you go up on stage as their greatest opponent is the same athlete.
Finally, for the bodybuilder, this sport is a healthy lifestyle because it involves discipline 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. These habits are based on intense physical exercise strict in nutrition and specific nutrition, and with a mature mental and emotional preparation to meet the demands of the sport; not only physical but also the mental demands.